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Acquired Brain Injury

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What is Acquired Brain Injury ?

Acquired brain injury may occur through the sudden onset of trauma, infection, lack of oxygen, strokes, and drug use episodes, or through prolonged alcohol or substance abuse, and tumours or degenerative neurological diseases. Two thirds of all people with this disease are over the age of 45. One third of those are over the age of 65, and the largest age group is between 40 and 49. The disease is higher in men than women. Acquired brain injury is any damage to the brain affecting a person physically, emotionally or behaviorally. It can happen at birth or later, from an illness or trauma, and can be called traumatic or nontraumatic, depending on the specific cause.

There could be many possible causes of it including road accidents, assaults, falls and accidents at home or at work, stroke, brain tumor, haemorrhage, or viral infection such as meningitis.


Some of the common symptoms of brain trauma caused by an injury are extreme drowsiness, distraction, impaired memory, depression, faulty judgement, and slackened reasoning. Possible physical and cognitive symptoms that arise from damage to some areas of the brain are:

  • Loss of simple movement of various body parts
  • Problems with reading and directions
  • Problems in vision and difficulty in recognizing faces
  • Problems with balance and movement; sleep difficulties
  • Loss of ability to walk, tremors, and dizziness


Some of the most probable causes of this disease include:

  • Stroke
  • Trauma
  • Anoxia
  • Tumour
  • Infection
  • Surgery


The main risk factors include:

  • Partially conscious state of mind
  • Vegetative state
  • Coma
  • Seizures
  • Fluid buildup


To prevent the occurrence of this disease, one should take care of:

  • Cutting the alcohol and drug use
  • Using airbags and seat belts
  • Using helmets while driving

How is it diagnosed?

At Medanta, the following neurological tests are used to detect the presence of this disease:


  • CT (Computed Tomography) scan
  • MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) scan
  • PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scan
  • ombined MRI and PET Lumbar puncture